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‘Impact of Climate Change on the Arab Countries' is the second of a series of annual reports produced by the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED). The first, released in 2008 under the title ‘Arab Environment: Future Challenges', covered the most pressing environmental issues facing the region. The 2009 AFED report is designed to provide information to governments, business, academia and the public about the impact of climate change on the Arab countries, and encourage concrete action to face the challenge. The report analyzes the Arab response to the urgent need for adaptation measures, and uses the latest research findings to describe the vulnerabilities of natural and human systems in the Arab world to climate change and the impacts on different sectors. In an attempt to help shape adequate policies, the report discusses options for a post-Kyoto regime and outlines the state of international negotiations in this regard.